Books Edited :

Finlay, B.L. and Sengelaub, D.R. Eds.   Development of the Vertebrate Retina   Plenum Press:   New York   1989

Finlay, B.L., Innocenti, G. and Scheich, H. Eds.   The Neocortex:   Ontogeny and Phylogeny   NATO ASI series, Plenum Press:   New York   1991  

Chalupa, L.M. and Finlay, B.L. Development and Organization of the Retina:   From molecules to function     Plenum Press, New York   1998.

Journal articles and book chapters:


Cahalane DJ, Charvet CJ and Finlay BL (2012). Systematic, balancing gradients in neuron density and number across the primate isocortex. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy  6:28. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2012.00028

Charvet, C.J. and Finlay B.L. (2012) Embracing covariation in brain evolution: Large brains, extended development and flexible primate social systems.  In Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior, in M.A.Hofman & D. Falk, eds., Progress in Brain Research  195: 71-87. 


Finlay, B.L., Hinz, F. and Darlington R.B. (2011) Mapping behavioral evolution onto brain evolution:  The strategic roles of conserved organization in individuals and species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B  366: 2111-2123 doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0344 

Finlay, B.L. and Osorio, D.C. (2011) Introduction to “Comparative, ecological and developmental aspects of visual system design and function.  Visual Neuroscience 28: doi:10.1017/S0952523811000289 

Charvet, C.J., Striedter, G. and Finlay, B.L. (2011) Evo-devo and brain scaling: candidate developmental mechanisms for variation and constancy in vertebrate brain evolution. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 78:248–257.

Syal, S. and Finlay, B.L. (2011) Thinking outside the cortex: Social motivation in the evolution and development of language. Developmental Science  14:  417-430 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00997.x

Cahalane, D.J., Clancy, B., Kingsbury, M.A., Graf, E., Sporns, O., and Finlay, B.L. (2011) Network structure implied by initial axon outgrowth in rodent cortex: Empirical measurement and models. PLoS ONE 6(1): e16113. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016113


Yopak, K., Lisney, T., Collin, S.E., Montgomery, J., Darlington, R.B. and Finlay, B.L. (2010) Brain scaling from sharks to primates:  A highly conserved vertebrate pattern. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107:12946-12951

Nagarajan, R., Clancy, B., Darlington, R., and  Finlay, B.L. (2010) ttime: an R package for translating the timing of brain development across mammalian species. Neuroinformatics DOI 10.1007/s12021-010-9081-y

Finlay, B.L., Clancy, B and Darlington, R.B. (2010) Late still equals large (A Response to Weisbecker V (2009): Why ‘Late Equals Large’ Does Not Work. Neuroscience 164:1648–1652). Brain, Behavior and Evolution 75: 4-6.


Lameirão, V.O.C.,1, Hamassaki, D.E., Rodrigues, A.R, de Lima, S.M, Finlay, B.L. and Silveira, L.C.L.  (2009) Rod bipolar cells in the retina of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella):   Characterization and distribution.  Visual Neuroscience 26: 389–396   

Dyer, M.A. , Martins, R., da Silva Filho, M.,  Muniz, J.A.,Silveira, L.C.L., Cepko, C. and Finlay, B.L. (2009)  Developmental sources of conservation and variation in the evolution of the primate eye. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 106: 8963 – 8968


Finlay, B.L. (2008)  Evolution, development and emerging universals. Language Universals M. Christiansen, C. Collins and S. Edelman eds., Oxford University Press.

Finlay, B.L. and Clancy, B. (2008)   Chronology of the development of the mouse visual system. Eye, Retina and Visual System of the Mouse     L. Chalupa and R.W. Williams, eds. MIT Press. pp 257-265.

Finlay, B.L. (2008) The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form .   Brain Research 1192: 5-16

Finlay B.L.   Brain evolution: developmental constraints and relative developmental growth. . In L.R. Squire, Editor-in-Chief Encyclopedia of Neuroscience  Academic Press, Oxford  vol. 2 pp. 337-345.

Finlay, B.L.,Franco, E.C.S., Yamada, E.S., Crowley, J.C., Parsons, M.E.,, Muniz, J.A. P.C and L.C.L. Silveira   Number and topography of cones, rods and optic nerve axons in New and Old World primates:   implications for the evolution of retinal development.   Visual Neuroscience   25:  289-299.   


Finlay, B.L. (2007)   Endless minds most beautiful.   Developmental Science   10: 30-34

Finlay, B.L. (2007)   E pluribus unum: Too many unique human capacities and too many theories.   In: The Evolution of Mind: Fundamental Questions and Controversies.     S. Gangestad and J. Simpson eds. Guilford Press   pp. 294-304.

Reep, R., Darlington, R.B. and Finlay, B.L.   (2007) The limbic system in mammalian brain evolution. Brain, Behavior and Evolution   70: 57-70

Clancy, B., Kersh, B, Hyde, J.,. Anand, K.J.S,   Darlington,   R.B. and Finlay, B.L. (2007) Web-based method for translating neurodevelopment from laboratory species to humans.   Neuroinformatics     5: 79-94

Chalfin, B.P., Cheung, D.T., Muniz, J.A.P.C., Silveira, L.C.L. and Finlay, B.L. (2007) Scaling of neuron number and volume of the pulvinar complex in New World primates:   comparisons with humans, other primates and mammals. Journal of Comparative Neurology     504: 265-274

Clancy, B., Finlay, B.L., Darlington, R.B. and Anand, K.J.S. (2007) Extrapolating brain development from experimental species to humans.   Neurotoxicology     28: 931-937



Finlay, B.L.   Yost,   J.E.,   and Cheung, D. (2006) Developmental disorders and evolutionary expectations: mechanisms of resilience.   In:   Development of the Central Nervous System:   Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine   M. Miller, ed. Oxford University Press   224-266

Finlay, B.L. and Brodsky, P.B.   (2006) Cortical evolution as the expression of a program for disproportionate growth and the proliferation of areas..   Evolution of Nervous Systems   J.H. Kaas, ed.   Elsevier: Oxford university Press   pp. 73-96


Finlay, B.L.   (2005)   Rethinking developmental neurobiology. In   Beyond Nature-Nurture:   Essays in Honor of Elizabeth Bates.     M. Tomasello   and S. Slobin, eds.    Lawrence Earlbaum Publishers pp195-219

Kaskan, P., Franco, C., Yamada, E., Silveira, L.C.L., Darlington, R.   and Finlay, B.L.   (2005) Peripheral variability and central constancy in mammalian visual system evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 272: 91-100

Finlay, B. L.   (2005) Brain and behavioral development (II): cortical . Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development , B. Hopkins, (Ed.). Cambridge University Press   296-305

Bradshaw, G. B. and Finlay, B.L. (2005) Natural symmetry.   Nature 435: 149

Finlay, B. L., Silveira, L.C.L. and Reichenbach, A.   (2005) Comparative aspects of visual system development.   In: The Structure, Function and Evolution of the Primate Visual System      J. Kremers, ed.   John Wiley and Sons   pp. 37-72

Finlay, B.L. (2005) Not there yet.   Commentary on “Relative size versus controlling for size: misunderstandings about ratios in research on sexual dimorphism in the human   corpus callosum.   Current Anthropology   36:

Finlay B.L., Cheung, D. and Darlington, R.B.   (2005) Developmental constraints on or developmental structure in brain evolution?     In Attention and Performance XXI "Processes of Change in Brain and Cognitive Development"   Munakata , Y. and Johnson, M. Oxford University Press pp 131-162


Finlay, B.L.   (2004) The Calvinist cortex:   penetrating evolutionary predestination.   Commentary on "Cortex, countercurrent context, and dimensional integration of lifetime memory"   by B. Merker.   Cortex   40: 577-579


Finlay, B.L., Clancy, B. E. and Kingsbury, M.A. (2003) The developmental neurobiology of early vision.   In   Advances in Infancy Research    S. P. Johnson and B. Hopkins, eds, Ablex Press   pp 1-42


Bates, E., Thal, D., Finlay, B.L., & Clancy, B. (2002). Early language development and its neural correlates. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Series Eds.) & S.J. Segalowitz & I. Rapin (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of Neuropsychology,Vol. 8: Child neurology   (2nd ed., pp. 109-176). Amsterdam:Elsevier Science B.V.

Kingsbury, M.A., Lettman, N.A., and Finlay B.L (2002) Reduction of early thalamic input alters adult corticocortical connectivity Developmental Brain Research 138: 35–43


Kaskan, P. and Finlay . B. L.(2001) Encephalization and its developmental structure:   how many ways can a brain get big?   Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex   T. Sanderson, Ed. Cambridge University Press pp. 14-29

Kingsbury, M. A.   and Finlay, B. L.   (2001)   The cortex in multidimensional space:   where do cortical areas come from?   Commentary Article. Developmental Science   4: 125-156

Finlay, B.L., Darlington, R.D. and Nicastro, N. (2001)    Developmental structure of brain evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences     24: 263-308 (with commentary and response)

Franco, E.C.S., Finlay, B.L.,Silveira, L.C.L., Yamada, Y.C,   and Crowley, J.C.   (2001) Conservation of absolute foveal area in New World primates:   A constraint on eye size and conformation. Brain, Behavior and Evolution   56:   276-286

Clancy, B., Darlington, R.B. and Finlay, B.L. (2001) Translating developmental time across mammalian species. Neuroscience   105: 7-17

Clancy, B.E. and Finlay, B.L. (2001) Neural correlates of early language learning. In M.   Tomasello and E. Bates (Eds.) Essential Readings in Language Development.


Kingsbury, M.A., Graf. E. and Finlay, B.L.(2000) Visual subcortical projections during development and following neonatal thalamic ablation in the hamster. Journal of Comparative Neurology . 423: 1-14

Clancy, B., Darlington, R.B. and Finlay, B.L. (2000)   The course of human events: predicting the timing of primate neural development.   Developmental Science 3: 57-66

Silveira, L.C.L., Yamada, E. S., Franco, E.C.S. and Finlay, B. L.(2000) The specialization of the owl monkey retina for night vision. Colour Research and Application 26: 118-122


Finlay, B.L.and Niederer, J.K.(1999)   Neural Development   MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.   R.A. Wilson and F.C. Keil, eds.   MIT Press, Cambridge pp 595-596

Darlington, R.B., Dunlop, S.A. and Finlay, B.L.   (1999) Commentary:   Neural development in metatherian and eutherian mammals:variation and constraint. Journal of Comparative Neurology   411: 359-368


Finlay, B.L. and Snow, R.L. (1998) Scaling the retina, micro and macro.   In:   Development and Organization of the Retina:   From molecules to function     Plenum Press, New York   L.M. Chalupa and B.L. Finlay, eds. pp 245-258

Finlay, B.L., Hersman, M.N. and Darlington, R.B. (1998) Patterns of vertebrate neurogenesis and the paths of vertebrate evolution.   Brain, Behavior and Evolution   52: 232-242


Niederer, J., Kingsbury, M. and Finlay B.L. (1997) What about isocortex can be rewired and reconfigured? in Research and Perspectives in Neuroscience   Mervaille, J., Christen, Y and Galaburda, A.M. eds.   Springer-Verlag    pp 121-134

Finlay, B.L.(1997) So many problems, so little time:   evolution and the dendrite.   Commentary on Quartz and Sejnowski,   “The neural basis of cognitive development:   A constructivist manifesto” Behavioral and Brain Sciences     20: 564-565.


Woo, T.-U., Niederer, J.K. and Finlay, B.L. (1996) Cortical target depletions and the developing lateral geniculate nucleus:   implications for trophic dependence. Cerebral   Cortex   6:   446-456

Woo, T.U. and Finlay, B.L.(1996)   Cortical target depletion and ingrowth of geniculocortical axons:   implications for cortical specification.     Cerebral   Cortex    6: 457-469

Troilo, D.B. , Xiong, M., Crowley, J.C. and Finlay, B.L. (1996) Factors controlling the dendritic arborization of retinal ganglion cells.   Visual Neuroscience 13:   721-734

Xiong, M. and Finlay, B.L. (1996) What do developmental mapping rules optimize?   Progress in Brain Research      112: 350-361


Finlay, B.L. and Darlington, R.B. (1995) Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains.   Science   268: 1578-1584


Finlay, B.L. (1994) The neocortex   Encyclopedia of Human Behavior    V.S. Ramachandran,   ed., Academic Press: San Diego. Revised and reprinted 1997   .

Xiong, M.-J., Pallas, S.L., Lim,S. and Finlay, B.L. (1994)   Regulation of the size of axon arbors of retinal ganglion cells by tectal target availability:   mechanisms of compression and expansion of the retinotectal projection.   Journal of Comparative Neurology   344:   581-597


Finlay, B.L. (1993)   Selective cell death. Chapter 42 In: The Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology Fulton, A.B. and Wright, J.D. eds.   Saunders: New York

Xiong, M.-J. and Finlay B.L. (1993) Changes in synaptic density after developmental compression or expansion of retinal input to the superior colliculus.   Journal of Comparative Neurology 330:   1-9

Miller, B., Chou, L.and Finlay, B.L. (1993)   The early development of visual corticothalamic and thalamocortical projections in the golden hamster.   Journal of Comparative Neurology   335:   16-41

Miller, B., Nagy, D., Finlay, B.L., Chance, B., Kobayashi, A. and Nioka, S.(1993) Consequences of reduced cerebral blood flow in brain development:   I. Gross morphology, histology and callosal connectivity.   Experimental Neurology      124: 326-342

Nioka, S.A., Zaman, A., Miller, B., Finlay, B.L., and Chance, B. (1993)   Consequences of reduced cerebral blood flow in brain development:   II.   Retardation of neurological outcomes and phosphorus metabolism. Experimental Neurology    124: 343-350

Finlay, B.L and B. Miller. (1993)   Regressive events in early cortical maturation:   Their significance for the outcome of early brain damage.   Dyslexia and Development:   Neurobiological Aspects of Extraordinary Brains    A.M.   Galaburda, ed.   Harvard University Press   pp.1-20


Finlay, B.L. (1992)   Cell death and the creation of regional differences in cell numbers.   Journal of Neurobiology   23: 1159-1171.


Finlay, B.L. (1991) The neocortex   Encyclopedia of Human Biology    M. Yelles ed., Academic Press: San Diego. revised amd reprinted 1994.

Finlay, B.L. (1991) Control of cell number and type in the developing and evolving neocortex.   In:   Finlay, B.L., Innocenti, G and Scheich, H.. Eds.   The Neocortex:   Ontogeny and Phylogeny    NATO ASI series, Plenum Press: New York   pp. 33-41

Pallas, S. and Finlay, B.L. (1991)   Compensation for population size mismatches in the hamster retinotectal system:   alterations in the organization of retinal projections. Visual Neuroscience    6:   71-281

Windrem, M.S., and Finlay, B.L. (1991)Thalamic ablations and neocortical development:   alterations in neocortical cell number and cytoarchitecture.   Cerebral   Cortex   1: 1-24

Miller, B., Windrem, M.S.and Finlay, B.L. (1991) Thalamic ablations and neocortical development::   alterations in thalamic and callosal connectivity.   Cerebral   Cortex   1: 25-49

Woo, T.U., Beale, J.M. and Finlay, B.L.(1991)   Dual fate of subplate neurons in the rodent.    Cerebral   Cortex    1: 173-200


Mitrofanis, J. and Finlay, B.L. (1990) Catecholaminergic neurons in the adult and developing retinas of the hamster and gerbil.     Journal of Comparative Neurology . 292: 480-494

Finlay, B.L.   (1990) Master mechanic, may I?   Evolutionary permission versus evolutionary pressure.    Commentary on Dean Falk's "Brain evolution in Homo:   The radiator theory"   in Behavioral and Brain Sciences   13:   353-354.


Wikler, K.C. and Finlay, B.L.(1989)   Developmental heterochrony and the evolution of species differences in retinal specializations.   in:   Development of the Vertebrate Retina, Finlay, B.L. and Sengelaub, D.R. eds., Plenum Press:   New York .   pp. 227-246

Finlay, B.L.,   and Pallas, S.L.(1989)   Control of cell number in the developing visual system.   Progress in Neurobiology , 32:   207-234.

Kelling, S.T., Sengelaub, D.R., Wikler, K.C., and Finlay, B.L. (1989) Differential elasticity of the growing retina and the development of the area centralis.   Visual Neuroscience, 2: 117-120.

Pallas, S.L. and Finlay, B.L. (1989) Conservation of receptive field properties of superior colliculus cells after developmental rearrangements of retinal input. Visual Neuroscience . 2: 121-135

Wikler, K.C., Perez, G. and Finlay, B.L. (1989) Neurogenesis in the gerbil retina:   a comparative analysis of the effects of developmental duration on retinal conformation.    Journal of Comparative Neurology .   285: 157-176


Henderson, Z., Finlay, B.L., and Wikler, K.C. (1988) Development of ganglion cell topography in the ferret retina.    Journal of   Neuroscience , 8: 1194-1205

Pallas, S.L., Gilmour, S., and Finlay, B.L. (1988) Control of cell number in the developing neocortex:   I. Effects of early tectal ablation.   Developmental Brain Research , 43: 1-11

Windrem, M.S., Jan de Beur, S. and Finlay, B.L. (1988) Control of cell number in the developing neocortex:   II.   Effects of corpus callosum transection.   Developmental Brain Research 43: 13-22


Finlay, B.L., Wikler, K.C. and   Sengelaub, D.R.   (1987) Regressive events in neurogenesis and scenarios for vertebrate brain evolution.   Brain, Behavior and Evolution , 30:102-117


Sengelaub, D.R., Dolan, R.P., and Finlay, B.L. (1986) Cell generation, death and retinal growth in the development of the hamster retinal ganglion cell layer.   Journal of Comparative Neurology , 246: 527-543.

Janowsky, J.S. and Finlay, B.L. (1986) Normal neuron loss and axon retraction in early development:   Their significance for the outcome of perinatal brain damage.   Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28: 375-389

Finlay, B.L., Sengelaub, D.R., and Berian, C.A. (1986)   Control of cell number in the developing visual system:   I.   Effects of monocular enucleation.   Developmental Brain Research , 28: 1-10

Raabe, J.I., Windrem, M. S., and Finlay, B.L. (1986)   Control of cell number in the developing visual system:   II. Visual cortex ablation.   Developmental Brain Research , 28: 11-22

Wikler, K.C., Kirn, J., Windrem, M.S., and Finlay, B.L.(1986)   Control of cell number in the developing visual system:   III. Partial tectal ablation.   Developmental Brain Research , 28:   23-32


Finlay, B.L. and Berian, C.A. (1985)   The hamster visual and somatosensory systems.   The Hamster:   Reproduction and Behavior , H. I. Siegel, Ed. Plenum Press: New York 409-431.

Sengelaub, D.R., Jacobs, L. and Finlay, B.L. (1985)   Regional differences in normally occurring cell death in the developing hamster lateral geniculate nuclei.   Neuroscience Letters, 55: 103-108.

Wikler, K.C., Raabe, J.I. and Finlay, B.L. (1985)   Temporal retina is preferentially represented in the early retinotectal projection in the hamster.   Developmental Brain Research, 21: 152-155.


Finlay, B.L. and Slattery, M. (1983)   Local differences in amount of early cell death in neocortex predict adult local specializations.   Science,   219:   1349-1351.

Janowsky, J.S. and Finlay, B.L. (1983) Cell degeneration in the early development of forebrain and cerebellum.   Anatomy and Embryology, 167: 439-447.

Sengelaub, D.R., Windrem, M.S. and Finlay, B.L. (1983)   Alterations of adult retinal ganglion cell distribution following early monocular enucleation.   Experimental Brain Research, 52: 269-276.


Sengelaub, D.R. and Finlay, B.L. (1982) Cell death in the mammalian visual system during normal development:   I.   Retinal ganglion cells.   Journal of Comparative Neurology, 204: 311-317.

Finlay, B.L., Berg, A.T. and Sengelaub, D.R. (1982)   Cell death in the mammalian visual system during normal development:   II.   Superior colliculus. Journal of Comparative Neurology , 204: 318-324.


Finlay, B.L. and Cairns, S.J. (1981) The relationship of aberrant retinotectal projections to visual orienting following neonatal tectal damage in hamster.   Experimental Neurology, 71

Finlay, B.L. and Sengelaub, D.R. (1981)   Toward a neuroethology of mammalian vision:   ecology and anatomy of rodent visuomotor behavior. Behavioural Brain Research, 3: 133-149.

Sengelaub, D.R. and Finlay, B.L. (1981)   Early removal of one eye reduces normally occurring cell death in the remaining eye.   Science, 213:   573-574.


Finlay, B.L. and So, K.F. (1979)   Altered retinotectal topography in hamsters with neonatal tectal slits.   Neuroscience , 4: 1119-1128.

Finlay, B.L., Marder, K. and Cordon, D. (1980) Acquisition of visuomotor behavior after neonatal tectal lesions in the hamster:   The role of visual experience.   Journal of Comparative and Physiological   Psychology , 94:   506-518.

Mort, E., Finlay, B.L. and Cairns, S. (1980)   The role of the superior colliculus in visually-guided locomotion and visual orienting in the hamster Physiological Psychology, 8: 20-28.

Finlay, B.L., Sengelaub, D.R., Berg, A.T. and Cairns, S.J. (1980) A neuroethological approach to hamster vision.   Behavioral Brain Research, 1:   479-496.


Finlay, B.L., Wilson, K.G. and Schneider, G.E. (1979) Anomalous ipsilateral retinal projections in Syrian hamsters with neonatal lesions:   topography and functional capacity.   Journal of Comparative Neurology, 183: 721-740.

Finlay, B.L., Schneps, S.E. and Schneider, G.E. (1979)   Orderly compression of the retinotectal projection following partial tectal ablation in the newborn hamster.   Nature, 280: 153-154.

Finlay, B.L. (1979)    Experimental manipulations of the development of ordered projections in the mammalian brain.   In:   Developmental Neurobiology of Vision , R.A. Freeman, Ed. 391-402 Plenum Press: New York.


Finlay, B.L., Schneps, S.E., Wilson, K.G. and Schneider, G.E. (1978)   Topography of visual and somatosensory projections to the superior colliculus of the golden hamster.   Brain Research , 142: 223-235.


Finlay, B.L., Schiller, P.H. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Meridional differences in orientation sensitivity in monkey striate cortex.   Brain Research , 105: 350-352.

Schiller, P.H., Finlay, B.L. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Short-term response variability of monkey striate neurons.   Brain Research   105: 347-349.

Schiller, P.H., Finlay, B.L. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Quantitative studies of single cells in monkey striate cortex:   I.   The spatio-temporal organization of receptive fields.   Journal of Neurophysiology, 39: 1288-1319.

Schiller, P.H., Finlay, B.L. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Quantitative studies of single cell properties in monkey striate cortex:   II.   Orientation specificity and ocular dominance.   Journal of Neurophysiology, 39: 1320-1333.

Schiller, P.H., Finlay, B.L. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Quantitative studies of single cells in monkey striate cortex:   III.   Spatial frequency. Journal of Neurophysiology, 39: 1334-1351.

Finlay, B.L., Schiller, P.H. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Quantitative studies of single cells in monkey striate cortex:   IV.   Corticotectal cells.   Journal of Neurophysiology, 39: 1352-1361.

Schiller, P.H., Finlay, B.L. and Volman, S.F. (1976) Quantitative studies of single cell properties in monkey striate cortex:   V.   Multivariate statistical analyses and models.   Journal of Neurophysiology, 39: 1362-1374.